Acne or acne on the body is an inflammation of the skin in the form of a rash due to diseases of the hair follicles or sebaceous glands.
In medicine, neonatal acne is known as neonatal cephalic pustulosis. Acne of newborns in folk medicine is also called flowering in newborns. Acne in newborns begins at 2–3 weeks of life and passes by 3 months of age.
Acne in newborns manifests itself in the form of red pimples or pimples with a light purulent apex. Redness spreads throughout the face - on the cheeks, head, nose, neck, ears, in rare cases on the back. But, despite the ugly appearance, these acne does not bother the child, the body does not itch, and the baby feels good - this is their main difference from other rashes.
Flowering in newborns is considered the stage of cleaning and adapting the child to living conditions. This is the physiological state of the body, which should not give rise to any experiences with his mom and dad. The main task of parents is to correctly recognize it, since acne in infants caused by other factors should not remain without medical attention.
More often, the flowering of infants can be hormonal in nature. It is scientifically confirmed that after 10-20 days of life, many children undergo a hormonal crisis. This is due to the fact that in the body of children there is still a follicular hormone of mother.
Symptoms of acne in newborns can be distinguished from other types of rash on the body in an infant:
- Acne or acne in newborns covers the baby's face, in addition, pimples appear throughout the head.
- Redness can turn into spots of yellow, pink or whitish hue.
- A rash appears on the body of the newborn, only pimples are much smaller than on the face.
- Acne does not cause itching or discomfort in the child, therefore, as a rule, the child does not respond to this kind of rash on the skin
- Of the sebaceous glands, abundant discharge is observed. A thin greasy film forms on the face.
In many cases, the causes of flowering of newborns in boys and girls are of a different nature. Causes of acne in newborns can be as follows:
- With a slight hormonal imbalance in the baby, a temporary malfunction in the hormones occurs. This may be due to breastfeeding. When feeding through milk, mother's hormones enter the baby's body, leading to an overabundance of certain elements. So there is a hormonal rash in newborns.
- Girls have another reason for flowering - hyperactivity of the sebaceous glands. Acne occurs when the baby has an increased work of the sebaceous glands. There is no particular threat, and not every organism reacts so violently to changes.
- The grease produced by the sebaceous glands appears on the child's body, attracting germs and dust, thereby clogging the pores. In order to prevent the appearance of acne, you need to take timely care of the baby's body, washing it with warm water.
- An unbalanced diet of a mother can lead to a flowering baby.
Under the influence of mother's hormones, the child's sebaceous glands function very energetically, producing a large amount of fat, but they do not have time to drive it out. As a result of this, clogging occurs, pimples form.
The cause of flowering of newborns can be not only acne in infants, but also allergic manifestations, as well as prickly heat. How to understand what exactly was the root cause of acne on the baby's body? Sweating, as a rule, is localized in certain areas of the baby's body in contact with clothing and in skin folds.
A rash of allergic origin differs from acne in infants in that it can occur on an arbitrary part of the child's body and are characterized by severe itching. If acne in crumbs is the result of an allergy, then limiting yourself to hygienic procedures will be clearly not enough. Mom will have to adjust the diet and decide on the allowed foods.
If redness occurs on the face of the baby, the women are often confused about what it is: flowering of newborns or another disease. Only a pediatrician can make an accurate diagnosis. Therefore, as soon as the newborn begins to appear red dots, you need to seek medical help.
As a rule, treatment of acne in newborns is not required. They resort to medications if within a couple of months the baby's acne does not go away, but only progresses. Any treatment for acne in newborns begins with the recommendation of a pediatrician after the diagnosis is confirmed.
Even if a specific drug helped one child cure acne, this does not mean that he will have the same effect for another. Each organism is individual, one drug helps, the other only exacerbates the situation.
Often, the doctor advises the following medications:
- 1% hydrocortisone cream, smear 1 time per day;
- 2% ketoconazole cream, use 2 times a day.
Without exception, all mothers and fathers cannot just watch if the child's face is strewn with acne. They try to process them, dry them, and in some cases even squeeze them. The latter should in no case be done - so you can infect the wounds, which will cause severe inflammation. It is also undesirable to apply fatty oils or creams to the baby's skin. They are composed of components with a high fat content, which leads to clogging of the pores of the skin.
Dr. Komarovsky does not recommend touching rashes, over time they will disappear themselves. Treatment of acne in newborns consists in the use of zinc ointment or Bepanten, but they do not show a significant effect, they only dry acne on the skin of infants and slightly remove inflammation.
Before resorting to traditional medicine, it will not be superfluous to consult a pediatrician. Frequent compresses can trigger allergic reactions.
To the disease began to subside, you can do the washing, using chamomile and a series of. Treatment lasts about a week, cases are not excluded, in which after a couple of days the acne on the skin of the child will decrease or even disappear. In babies with hormonal disorder, the likelihood of the course of the disease for 2 to 3 months is high.
To reduce rashes, you should not violate the rules of hygiene, provide the crumbs with more fresh air. Less walking under the influence of sunlight, as during hot weather the activity of the sebaceous glands is activated.
In order for the skin of the child to be in perfect condition, it is necessary to adhere to some measures to prevent skin rashes.
During the period of acne formation in newborns, the mother is quite capable of monitoring the condition of the child and competently taking care of him, conducting all the required hygiene procedures. To properly care for the delicate skin of an infant, a number of actions should be performed:
- Keep your skin clean. Wash your baby every day, but do not rub acne areas. Wash your baby using baby soap at least 2 times a day;
- bathe your baby using only baby bathing products;
- Do not use any ointments and alcohol solutions without medical advice; it is allowed in the morning to wipe the face with decoctions of chamomile, string or calendula;
- an alternative to decoctions can be cotton pads, previously wetted with soapy water, to wipe the face;
- reddened pimples can also be lubricated with Panthenol;
- the child should have an individual towel;
- do not allow direct sunlight to hit the baby's face;
- you need to walk outdoors more often
- open scratch is the path of infection. For this reason, make sure that the child does not scratch the pimples. We remind you that on the handles of infants, the nails are cut once every 5 days, and on the legs once every 10 days.
- air baths are not only an excellent method of hardening, but also preventing the appearance of rashes and inflammation on the skin of infants.
- The baby's clothes should be made only of natural materials, but also preferably with external seams, impeccably clean and ironed. This also applies to his bedding.
- In the room where the bed is, humidity and temperature suitable for the child should be maintained. The heat in the room is unacceptable!
- If there are reddish spots on the baby's body, and the skin begins to itch, then be sure to show the baby to the doctor.
It is not easy to protect fully from acne in newborns. But precautions significantly reduce the risk of purulent pimples and rashes in children.
Neonatal cephalic pustulosis or acne in newborns is normal, for this reason parents do not need to get upset and panic. Hormonal rash stops on its own after a certain time. Therefore, you just need to have a little patience and the acne in the baby will go away on its own.
Acne, or, in another way, acne, is a fairly common phenomenon. This unpleasant cosmetic problem is faced by a large number of people, regardless of age and gender. To combat acne eruptions, which bring a lot of negative experiences, whole medical programs are created to develop effective measures to eliminate acne.
Due to its extreme prevalence of childhood acne, its types, causes, and treatment methods are a burning issue for pediatricians and many parents. Faced with the need to deal with acne in a child, it is better to be fully equipped, and to achieve sustainable results in getting rid of rashes, do not experience a shortage of information regarding all the subtleties of this task. Having understood the mechanisms that trigger the process of acne, knowing the basic methods of their treatment and the rules for caring for a child during a rash, it will be much easier to deal with this phenomenon.
From a medical point of view, acne can be explained as the inflamed state of the hair follicle, which occurs due to the accumulation of excess secretion of the sebaceous glands and dead epithelial cells, most often found in adolescents and adults in active reproductive age and affects mainly the face, rarely meeting on the back, shoulders, forearms. The main prerequisites for the appearance of blackheads are considered the following:
- predisposition at the genetic level, when acne passes "by inheritance" from parents;
- increased levels of androgen hormone during puberty, leading to increased work of the sebaceous glands;
- bacteria propionibacterium acne, the activity of which is activated against the background of the inflammatory process in the hair follicles;
- factors of external mechanical injury (tight clothing, the habit of touching the face);
- self-extrusion of eels and black dots;
- taking medicines containing halogens - bromine, iodine, fluorine; fatty cosmetics, including lanolin, paraffin; steroid and contraceptive preparations containing lithium.
Until recently, in addition to the listed causes of acne, poor hygiene, excessive tanning, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, malnutrition, abundant in carbohydrates and fried foods, stress and depression were also indicated. However, modern dermatology does not recognize them as fundamental.
Acne vulgaris or, common acne, which is the most common type of acne, especially common in adolescents, in turn, are divided into the following types:
- blackheads, often referred to as "black dots", are called open comedones in medical practice;
- whiteheads, or millet - closed comedones;
- papule, an inflamed nodule that rises slightly above the skin;
- pustule, subcutaneous vesicle filled with pus.
All of these acne species are mild to moderate acne. In rare cases, acne can occur in a severe, difficult to treat form and is divided into fulminant acne, cysts, spherical, fulminant acne, and confluent face edema.
Before you begin to take measures to eliminate acne, you need to tune in accordingly - treatment can be lengthy. In addition, medication should take place against the background of strictly observed sanitary standards, following the correct diet and intake of a sufficient amount of fluid, vitamin therapy. An important factor in the treatment of acne is an individual approach that allows you to select the most effective means to combat acne.
Therapeutic drugs that successfully cope with the problem of acne eruptions are divided into local (applied externally) and systemic, which are used in severe forms. By the nature of the action taken, they, in turn, are divided into:
- bactericidal (aimed at the destruction of bacteria that cause the disease) - benzoyl peroxide;
- means that regulate the quantity and quality of the secretion of the sebaceous glands - tretinoin;
- drugs that have a regenerating effect on the damaged epithelium - various retinoids;
- antibiotics that have an anti-inflammatory effect, destroying or stopping the activity of bacteria - tetracycline, erythromycin;
- an indispensable tool in severe cases is isotretinoin, which inhibits the production of sebum, quantitatively reducing the number of bacteria and, accordingly, comedones.
Only the attending physician is entitled to prescribe the medical treatment of acne, who, after appropriate tests, will prescribe complex therapy, with proper observance of which a favorable outcome of the disease and a speedy improvement of the skin condition are possible. Do not get involved in self-medication with antibiotics, as this can provoke the opposite of the expected situation.
The parental concern for childhood acne affects even very young children, as well as adolescents during puberty. Acne can affect baby skin during various periods of a child's life. On this basis, acne rashes are distinguished in newborns, infants, young children, adolescents.
Acne of newborns has the appearance of a rash, partly reminiscent of prickly heat, and appears in 20% of children, moreover, male babies are more prone to it. Identifying acne in this case is somewhat difficult, you may need to consult several doctors at once - a dermatologist, endocrinologist, allergist. The causes of this temporary condition in newborns are not well understood, but basically they can be divided into the following:
- excessive activity of lipophilic yeast on the surface of the skin of the baby;
- hormonal imbalance;
- increased secretory function of the sebaceous glands.
One way or another, neonatal acne is more a psychological irritant for loving mothers, dads and grandmothers, rather than a disease, and disappears as the child grows, usually not requiring any special treatment. Full stabilization of the condition can occur in the period from 4 weeks to 3 months, less often - from 6 months to a year. In this case, normal hygiene measures are recommended, excluding care with too oily cosmetics. Mandatory air and sun baths. You can use drying ointments and creams, such as bepanthene or baby powder, to speed up the healing process. In no case should you squeeze out blackheads, which can lead to the development of the inflammatory process. However, even if you do not interfere with the development of acne in the baby, in most cases it disappears by itself. In difficult cases, when the condition is aggravated, treatment with retinoids, bactericidal drugs is prescribed, laser therapy is performed.
The appearance of acne on the skin of a child aged 3-6 months to a year and a half, is even less common than acne in newborns. Basically, the process starts due to hormonal imbalance and a genetic predisposition to it. In most cases, the condition normalizes to 2 years, but in severe forms lasts up to 5-6 years. A special cause for concern in this case is spherical acne, which can leave behind deep scars, which are a signal that acne will return to the skin again in the prepubertal (teenage) period. Treatment in this situation includes classic remedies used for acne patients of different ages with the appropriate dosage. It is a recognized leader in the fight against acne - benzoyl peroxide, erythromycin, and in especially difficult cases isotretinoin. The duration of treatment from 6 months to a year.
Acne on the skin of a child from 1 to 7 years of age is also quite rare. The sources again lie in hormones, and more specifically in androgens, in excess produced by the adrenal glands. You need to get rid of acne at this age by the same methods as from infant acne.
The problem of acne in puberty is as old as the world. From youthful acne every new growing generation suffers. This is due to the hormonal restructuring of the growing organism and the most powerful emissions of androgens, which provokes hypertrophic secretion of sebum. Accumulating in the hair follicle, excess fat, dead skin cells create a favorable environment for bacteria that provoke inflammatory processes that trigger the formation of comedones. Acne eruptions that begin in adolescents aged 12-14 and gradually pass by the age of 20, require special attention and thoughtful treatment. In the opposite case, acne can safely migrate into adulthood, thereby causing many cosmetic and especially psychological problems. By contacting a doctor in time, you can get rid of acne in a timely manner and prevent their recurrence in the future. Bactericidal drugs along with agents that normalize the secretory function of the sebaceous glands, along with zinc-containing ointments, usually give a good result. If creams and lotions focused on self-relieving acne do not help, you need to take radical measures, antibiotics, on the advice of a specialist, without expecting the issue to resolve itself. The treatment of acne in a teenager should be accompanied by strict adherence to sanitary rules - wash twice a day with special soap, use only anti-comedone cosmetics, eat properly and do not forget about vitamins, regularly follow the doctor's recommendations, and then the result will not be long in coming. The benefit of modern pharmacology and the field of cosmetic services offers a wide selection of new methods to combat the old problem.
So, the main thing in the treatment of acne in children is patience and a positive attitude. The solution to this delicate problem requires special tact and, of course, perseverance. Properly planned therapeutic measures, a strictly adhered regimen, faith in one's own strength - and there will be no trace of acne!
Acne in newborns. Signs, how it looks, photo on the face, head, chest, back. How to distinguish from allergies, how to treat, ointments, folk remedies, baby skin care
The delicate skin of a newborn baby responds to any, even minor change. The appearance of rashes in infants is a common occurrence. Acne of newborns on the face and body is a disease that resembles an allergy, but caused by other causes.
Factors that provoke the development of the disease must be diagnosed and treated on time. In order not to make a mistake with the diagnosis, photos of the rash in the article will help to understand the differences between acne and other diseases.
Acne in newborns usually occurs immediately after birth. It appears on the skin in the form of small pimples of red color with a yellowish or whitish shade with a hump from pus inside, like a normal acne rash with hormonal changes in adolescents.
In most cases, a rash appears 15 to 20 days after birth. Acne can cover the entire face of the baby, but some children have single pimples. Pathology is diagnosed in approximately a third of newborns.
If the rash is not caused by diseases of the internal organs and does not require therapy, then after 2 to 3 weeks it passes on its own.
The main reason for the appearance of rashes is a hormonal crisis. In newborns, the body contains a high level of mother's sex hormones. In addition, the child has not yet fully formed the endocrine system, which does not cope with its functions.
Hormonal crisis in children is diagnosed in the first days of life.
In addition to acne, infants may show signs of puberty, characteristic of adolescence:
- swelling of the genital organs;
- mastopathy of a physiological nature;
- metrorrhagia and dropsy of the testicles.
The appearance of these signs is explained by the presence in the child's body of a significant amount of the hormone estradiol, which in the last months of fetal development was received by the mother from the mother. It causes a rash on the face. To level its hormonal background, hormone therapy can be prescribed.
Acne in newborns may appear for the following reasons:
- Genetic predisposition (if a woman before pregnancy suffered from skin rashes, then the baby will be at risk).
- A high level of lipophilic yeast in the child's body, contributing to the development of inflammation.
- Not developed sebaceous glands. If the glands cannot cope with an excess of fatty tissue, then they gradually become clogged.
Acne in newborns, the photo on the face of which is presented in this article, may also appear on other organs, including genitals. In boys, acne on the penis can be accompanied by dropsy of the testicles. In girls, the process can be complicated by engorgement of the mammary glands.
If the physiological rash proceeds without complications, then after a few weeks there will not be a trace of pimples. But if an infection gets into the skin of the baby, the inflammatory process begins. Rashes degenerate into pustules, in which pus forms. Young children are very difficult to tolerate the inflammatory process.
They may develop the worst effects of acne:
- furunculosis - a disease that is purulent-necrotic in nature;
- streptococcal impetigo - a pathology based on a streptococcal infection;
- streptoderma - inflammation of the skin caused by streptococcal bacillus.
Therefore, if the first signs of rashes are revealed in the baby, it is better for parents to show it to the pediatrician. A specialist will examine the skin of the baby and give the necessary recommendations.
Rashes on the skin of a child are of several types.
The following types of acne are distinguished:
- Milium. These are small whiteheads localized on the nose of a child. As a rule, milium is diagnosed in infants in the first days of life. The rash does not cause problems and passes after 15 to 20 days. Therapy is not carried out.
- Toxic erythema. It is a rash of a yellowish or whitish hue, surrounded by a ring of red. Erythema, as a rule, appears on the abdomen of the baby in the first days of his life. Acne also goes away without treatment.
- Prickly heat. Rashes are red pimples that are localized on wetting areas of the baby's body: behind the ears, in the groin, in the folds of the neck. In severe cases, rashes become purulent. Sweating should be treated: apply swabs moistened with cool water or a soda solution to the affected areas of the skin (dissolve a teaspoon of baking soda in 250 ml of water). In addition, pediatricians recommend leaving babies without diapers as often as possible.
- Seborrheic dermatitis. The rash resembles small nodules and crusts that appear in the area of the face and neck of the baby. Dermatitis causes subcutaneous fat blocking the glands.
- Allergic rash. Red itchy spots on the face and body of the newborn are caused by improper nutrition of the mother (or an improperly selected mixture for the baby). Also, allergies can provoke external irritants or diseases of internal organs. It is recommended to treat an allergic rash only under the strict supervision of a doctor, self-medication is dangerous.
Acne in newborns (photos on the face, head, in rare cases, in the neck and back, show the localization of red acne) has the following first signs:
- white-red acne spots appear in the nose and cheeks, the rash may have a pearly tint;
- in the center of larger acne, small white pimples can be seen;
- rashes do not itch, do not cause anxiety;
- despite acne, the child is active, eats and sleeps normally;
- in infants, unlike adolescents, comedones are practically absent.
There are other symptoms of acne in children. The skin around the rashes becomes red, pink or whitish. Many children have oily sheen on their face.
On the skin of infants, rashes are manifested by the following signs:
- The rash covers only the face of the child, single pimples can be seen on the head.
- Reddish spots can change the tint to whitish, pink or yellow.
In some children, colostrum-like fluid is released from the mammary glands. It is impossible to squeeze out the liquid, since it is possible to break the protective film that protects the child's glands from infection.
Acne in newborns differs from prickly heat and allergic manifestations in the type and localization of acne, as well as in the state of health of the newborn. With acne, pimples are localized on the face, and with other types of rashes, they are located throughout the body.
You can compare these 3 types of rashes and see some distinctive features. To make it clearer, the distinguishing features can be summarized in a table.
|Rash name||Appearance of rashes||Acne localization||Child's well-being|
|acne||there are bubbles with purulent contents||in the nose and cheeks, rarely on the head and body||the child is active, sleeps well and eats|
|allergy||the rash is diverse, but without bubbles with purulent contents||all over the body||the child is restless, since allergies cause severe itching; other symptoms are possible|
|prickly heat||small red rash||throughout the body, except for the face, slight anxiety, itching;||the health of the child does not change.|
But if there is any doubt about the diagnosis, then it is better to show the baby to the pediatrician. An experienced doctor will establish a diagnosis and, if necessary, select the treatment.
As a rule, it is not necessary to treat the flowering of newborns. The pediatrician prescribes medicines and ointments only when the acne does not go away for 3-4 months, and the pathological process progresses. Any therapy for rashes in infants is recommended to begin only after the diagnosis is confirmed by a pediatrician.
Even if a specific drug helped one child get rid of acne, this does not mean that it will help another.
The pediatrician most often prescribes the following ointments to the baby:
- ketoconazole 2%: smear of the affected skin is recommended 2 times a day;
- hydrocortisone ointment 1%: smear the rash once a day.
Dry pimples help diaper rash ointments containing zinc. For example, Bepanten. You can lubricate acne with ointment no more than 1 time in 2 to 3 days.
Wipe rashes with Chlorophyllipt and other antiseptic agents is not necessary, since this procedure will not give the expected effect. It is better to gently wipe the baby's delicate skin with tampons dipped in a decoction of a pharmacy chamomile or a string. Parents should monitor the condition of the skin of the baby so that they always remain dry and clean.
For the treatment of rashes in infants, alternative methods of therapy can be used. As a rule, to remove the inflammatory process, decoctions from a string, calendula, chamomile, or other medicinal plants are used. Tampons dipped in a slightly warm broth, it is recommended to wipe the baby's skin daily.
It is advisable to wipe the face of the baby in the morning, when the baby just woke up. During sleep, children sweat a lot, so the amount of acne in the morning can increase.
But decoctions of herbs and plants must be used with special care, since there is a high risk of allergies. Before treatment, be sure to consult a pediatrician.
Aloe juice can dry the child's skin and remove the inflammatory process, since this healing plant is rich in vitamins and minerals. But children in the first year of life cannot wipe their face with this traditional medicine, since an unforeseen allergic reaction can occur.
A nursing mother is allowed to take daily up to 10 g of aloe juice (freshly squeezed), diluting it with lemon juice. There are certain subtleties of making aloe juice. It is necessary to use the lower leaves of a plant that is more than 3 years old.
The healing effect of the plucked leaves lasts no more than 4 hours, so you need to squeeze the juice immediately. The cut sheet should be thoroughly washed and peeled. The outer layer is carefully cut and juice is squeezed out of it.
Pediatricians strongly advise bathing children in their first year of life in boiled clean water. Doing baths with decoctions of herbs is not recommended, since allergies can be provoked. But rubbing the affected areas of the skin with a decoction of herbs is allowed.
- positively affects the delicate skin of the baby;
- excludes child inhalation of herbal steam.
Safe herbs allowed from the first days of life are called calendula and a series of. But for the first time, making a decoction to wipe the face should be only one of them. If the child tolerated the procedure well, then you can connect another weed. The rash places need to be wiped 2 - 3 times a day, do it very carefully, without squeezing pimples.
Acne of newborns, the photo on the face of which was seen by many experienced parents, sometimes appears on the baby's body. If this happens, then it is allowed to bathe the baby in a weak solution of manganese (the water should have a slightly pinkish tint).
The procedure is carried out very carefully, water is not allowed in the eyes or mouth of the newborn.
If the baby has pimples on his face, you need to adjust the diet of a nursing woman. Mom's diet should include freshly squeezed fruit juices.
Healthy cocktails consisting of freshly squeezed juices:
A nursing woman should drink 40 g of a cocktail once a day, preferably in the morning. A newborn may experience an allergic reaction, therefore, starting treatment with juices, it is necessary to dilute the first portions of the cocktail with water in a 1: 1 ratio.
To restore the epidermis, the skin of a newborn needs vitamins E and A. But giving a small child fat-soluble vitamins is very dangerous, since overdosing in the body can cause unforeseen side effects.
Therefore, the infant should receive a daily dose of vitamins from mother's milk. A woman breast-feeding a baby needs to enrich her diet with foods rich in vitamins A and E. Only new products should be introduced into the diet of a nursing mother gradually, otherwise the child may begin an allergic reaction.
The famous pediatrician Komarovsky does not recommend touching a physiological rash on the face of a young child, because after a few weeks the rashes will go away without treatment.
Treatment of acne in infants consists in the use of Bepanten or an ointment containing zinc. But, according to Dr. Komarovsky, medicines do not have a pronounced effect on children's skin, but only slightly dry acne.
If the newborn is diagnosed with acne, then the following actions are strictly contraindicated:
- Smear the affected areas with lotions or baby oil. It is also forbidden to treat the child with ointments and creams, which include an antibiotic.
- Lubricate acne with antiseptic agents (chlorophyllipt, zelenka and analogues).
- Squeeze acne, as you can cause an infection. An inflammatory process will begin, fraught with the appearance of scars and other complications.
- Worrying a nursing woman, because an emotional outburst provokes the production of the hormone cortisol in her body.
Flowering of newborns can disturb the baby from several weeks to several months. It is not necessary to treat the child.
A doctor should be consulted in the following cases:
- the rash does not go away for more than 3 months;
- rashes are rapidly increasing;
- a dry crust appeared on the face;
- the infectious process is connected;
- the child is naughty, refuses food.
Acne in newborns, according to many pediatricians, is a natural physiological process of adapting a child's body to life in an external environment that does not need special treatment.
Subject to compliance with the hygiene standards of the newborn in the first months of life, rashes pass on their own. However, if a severe rash is noticed on the face or body, as in the above photo, you need to consult a pediatrician. In addition to skin care for the child, it is necessary to carefully monitor the nutrition of the nursing mother.
Acne is a skin disease, which manifests itself in the form of comedones and acne, as well as inflamed lesions of red color. The common name for acne is acne or acne.
The main cause of acne in a child is clogging of pores on the skin. Pores are passages into the hair follicles: sebaceous glands are also located here. If the gland works as usual, it prevents dry skin from forming and helps eliminate dead epithelial cells. If the production of sebaceous secretion is increased, the pores become clogged with dirt, bacteria and comedones appear. Outside, comedone corks are white or black. If they erupt, dirt and bacteria enter the face and cause inflammation. When inflammation goes deep into the skin, acne increases, resulting in the form of dense, painful cysts.
Usually, acne appears in adolescents during puberty due to malfunctions in the hormonal background. But the appearance of acne at a different age in children is also not excluded.
In addition to hormonal disruption, the following are the causes of acne:
- increased sweating, regular stay in too wet a room;
- stressful situations;
- the use of medicines with stimulants that affect the excessive production of sebum;
- uncontrolled use of cosmetic products with fat, which are used to care for skin or hair.
The most pronounced sign of acne is acne, which can occur on absolutely any area of the skin. They can be either black or white. Symptoms of acne also include:
- inflammation on the skin;
- cysts are formations under the skin that are easily palpated and sometimes suppurate;
- pustules - small pustules;
- post-acne scars that arose as a result of improper treatment of the disease.
In addition, signs of acne include white dots that often appear near the nose and chin.
The diagnosis of acne is quite simple. Usually this is done by a dermatologist, even during the first consultation. If necessary, the doctor may prescribe a series of additional examinations for the child. Among them, a biochemical blood test, a laboratory test for hormones. Do this to identify the causes of acne and their subsequent elimination.
As a rule, after the puberty period, acne goes away on its own. If you carry out treatment, acne will disappear in a couple of months, but from time to time it will make itself felt. The main cosmetic complication arising from untreated acne is scarring of the skin. Also, the consequence of the disease can be depression in a teenager, which arose due to unpleasant changes in appearance.
Thus, among the complications of acne, one can distinguish a change in skin tone to crimson or blue, the appearance of cysts that deform the skin, a decrease in self-esteem, and the appearance of complexes. Also, a side effect may occur after acne treatment. For example, increased dry skin and even liver damage. That is why medications for the treatment of acne in a child should be selected exclusively by a dermatologist.
What can parents with a baby with more acne do? It is necessary to tell children about the observance of personal hygiene rules and purchase special over-the-counter skin cleansing products for the child. Usually they contain components whose action is aimed at destroying bacteria, as well as drying out skin secretions and effectively exfoliating the upper layer of the epidermis. Such funds can cause dryness and redness of the skin, so the ideal option for combating acne is to consult a doctor and act according to his recommendations. Under no circumstances should acne be crushed. And do not allow this child to do this, otherwise after an acne he may have ugly scars on his face. You should also consult a doctor when the acne does not go away for a long time.
The dermatologist to whom you bring your child with acne recommends different treatment options for the disease. Against acne, depending on the problem that caused it, can be prescribed:
- antibiotics to relieve the inflammatory process, both for local and oral use;
- retinoic acid gels and creams;
- preparations with benzene peroxide and salicylic acid, which cleanse the skin of bacteria;
- Phototherapy is a laser acne treatment procedure used in especially severe cases.
If the child has scars after acne, the doctor can advise cosmetic procedures. For example, dermabrasion, lymphatic drainage, chemical peeling. Sunbaths also contribute to acne treatment. But you should not get involved in tanning in any case, since the sun's rays can provoke a serious illness - skin cancer, or melanoma.
Among the preventive measures that help prevent acne or reduce inflammatory processes on the skin of a child, the following can be noted:
- Daily cleansing of the skin with a mild soap that does not dry.
- If your daughter uses makeup, she must wash it off before going to bed.
- Washing 1-2 times a day.
- Wash your hair regularly if your skin is oily.
If acne in a child has already begun to appear, do not despair. Do not let him squeeze them, rub them. Let the child as little as possible touch the face, as this can lead to the active spread of infection throughout the skin.
The baby is born, but contrary to the conventional wisdom that his skin should be soft and clean, whitish or yellowish pimples - acne - appear on his tiny face, much to the dismay of mothers and fathers with little parental experience. They can be single and multiple, covering a fairly large area of the forehead or cheeks. When asked who is to blame and what now to do with these rashes, parents often turn to the famous pediatrician of the highest category Evgeny Komarovsky.
Acne in newborns (neonatal cephalic pustulosis) is not such a rare occurrence. It occurs in approximately 30% of all newborn infants. White or yellow acne appears in the crumbs in the forehead, around the nose, on the cheeks, on the chin, in the scalp. These are the most common acne locations.
Much less often, a rash can be observed from the area of the ears and neck. Eugene Komarovsky calms - this acne rash is most often physiological in nature and does not require any special treatment.
The fact is that the child is affected by the residual hormonal background of the mother, which was natural for him during nine months in the tummy. In this case, the "instigator" of pimples is the hormone estrogen, which is produced in large quantities in the mother's body in the last trimester of pregnancy and during childbirth. It allows the baby to collect subcutaneous fat, and also contributes to the appearance of acne.
In addition, after birth, the gonads of a new person are activated, this also causes acne in newborns. Especially if you remember that the sebaceous glands of the child are not yet able to function in the correct "debugged" mode.
Most often, such a rash is either present at birth, or appears in the first six months of the child's independent life after birth. There is a fairly common opinion among pediatricians that infant acne is a way for baby skin to adapt to a rather aggressive environment, in which there are a lot of bacteria, fungi and other pathogens.
Attentive parents, according to Komarovsky, are quite able to independently figure out what exactly popped up on the baby's skin - neonatal pimples or rashes with allergies. With a food or other allergic reaction, rashes will be on the whole body, with acne in newborns - only on the face.
An allergic rash, as a rule, gives the child a lot of unpleasant sensations, itches, itches, the baby begins to behave uneasily, act up, cry for no apparent reason. Acne of newborns does not cause any obsessive and unpleasant effects, the child does not feel it.
Acne in babies can be in the form of papules (reddish seals), comedones (whitish, as it were, "closed" rash) or pustules (reddish seals with a light top, pus). With an allergic rash, the rashes and the places around them have a pronounced red tint, without purulent "heads", whitish tops.
Dr. Komarovsky recommends that when a rash is found, look carefully at that part of the child's priests, which is always hidden under the diaper. She does not come into contact with any allergens, and therefore if the rash is not there, then it is not worth talking about food allergies. If it is, then it is most likely not a harmless pimple, but a real allergic reaction.
Sometimes acne is confused with prickly heat. If the baby is mixed up, neglected by daily bathing, then the rash on the face will really initially resemble acne (this ailment is also called facial flowering). You can distinguish by prevalence - sweating spreads throughout the body faster than acne, and, as a rule, does not have purulent heads.
More often, acne can be confused with dermatitis. Only a doctor can determine the difference in strength, and therefore Komarovsky recommends in any case showing the baby to a pediatrician.
As we already said, no special treatment for acne in a newborn is required, but there are some nuances that Evgeny Olegovich recommends to learn and internalize to all young mothers.
- Squeezing pimples is strictly prohibited for the baby! Firstly, it hurts, and secondly, pathogenic bacteria can get into the wounds and cause an inflammatory process. Then, in place of such "complicated" wounds, ugly scars will remain, it is already impossible to get rid of them.
- If parents use cosmetics for children, they should be labeled "From the first days of life." It is not necessary to burn acne with brilliant green, iodine, alcohol and alcohol-containing solutions. Under the ban and ointments with antibiotics, and even an ordinary baby cream, because it is quite oily. Do not try to solve the problem with a powder, it is useless. If there are a lot of rashes, you can use zinc ointment or Sudokrem, they effectively "dry" pimples.
- If the acne does not go away for a long time, the rash becomes larger and more and more areas of the baby's face are covered by it, be sure to consult a doctor. Such pimples may not have a hormonal root cause, but an infectious one.
- A mother who is breastfeeding should worry less so that stress hormone cortisol does not enter the milk. It also contributes to the appearance of skin problems in the child. In addition, a nursing mother should review her diet.
- A child with acne in newborns needs sun and air baths, hardening. In the warm season, crumbs with problem skin should often be in the air. Herbal medicine is acceptable - swimming in water with the addition of a decoction of chamomile and a string. The baby's chamomile can be washed several times a day, avoiding the broth getting into the eyes, nose and ears.
- With the right approach, according to Evgeny Komarovsky, acne disappears without a trace on their own in a fairly short time - from several weeks to 3 months.
- If acne appears after a year, this is a very good reason to contact a pediatrician, and then to an allergist and dermatologist.
- If a child with a pronounced acne rash has an appetite loss, behavior, sleep, skin becomes dry and rough, this is also an occasion for a thorough examination by specialists.
- If you cannot determine the origin of the rash. If it is not possible to understand whether it is allergic or physiological infant, Komarovsky advises to visit a doctor. The specialist will be able to quickly resolve all issues and give the necessary recommendations.
Rashes in children are usually classified by age: acne of the newborn, childhood acne, teenage rash. Acne is often accompanied by acute inflammation with foci of rash, peeling, and comedones. But there may be less aggressive forms without inflammation around the focus of damaged tissue with a small number of rashes and areas of peeling.
From the point of view of medical science, acne is a synonym for acne, a disease associated with the malfunctioning of the sebaceous glands, which can also cause the appearance of large acne in adults. Many children have problems with the sebaceous glands, which cause a lot of questions.
Acne in babies appears from birth. A child is born with rashes or gets a problem in the first days of his life. Children's acne occurs from 2-3 months and lasts up to 10-12 years. Girls are exposed to dermatological disease earlier than boys. But at birth, male babies become victims of rashes much more often than baby girls. Adolescent acne is inherent in the age range of 14 years to 18 years.
The rash inherent in newborns is called neonatal pustulosis or simply flowering of newborns. It is quite easy to distinguish from allergies. When it appears, childhood acne has an acute inflammatory and symmetrical nature. These are clear redness localized in the buccal region. Neonatal pustulosis is a small pustular rash of red color with a white dot in the middle. Lesions cover not only the area of the cheeks, but the forehead, nose and eye eyelids. Pimples are observed behind the ears, on the shoulders, on the neck or even on the scalp.
Medical science considers 2 factors fundamental for the appearance of acne in infants:
The role of fungi - malassesia is not fully understood, and microorganisms have not been studied.
The phenomenon of a small number of small pimples is considered the normal physiological state of a child who has hormonal formation. It is explained by the fact that with the mother's milk, the child receives hormones that actively affect the sebaceous glands. Appearing during the first month of life, infant acne lasts from 2 to 4 weeks. Later, the disease can begin due to the characteristics of maternal hormonal metabolism. Therefore, neonatal pustulosis does not need professional treatment. Over time, mom's hormones stabilize and pimples go away. The main thing is to observe the precautions for caring for the child. These include:
- Comfortable temperature: you should not overheat the child, giving an increased load to the sebaceous glands.
- Simple hygiene - washing with water.
- Abstinence from acne manipulation: squeezing can lead to severe infection and skin damage.
- Refusal to use drugs and cosmetics.
It is enough to adhere to these rules to get rid of childhood acne without consequences. It is worth staying calm and waiting. Pimples pass on their own within 3-4 weeks and do not leave any marks or scars. Hormonal ointments, antihistamines, alcohol-containing solutions, fatty creams can only harm the sensitive skin of the baby. If acne in a baby causes anxiety and an overwhelming desire to help, monitor your diet. Although neonatal pustulosis is not interconnected with the mother's nutrition, excessively fatty, smoked, and sweet foods can indirectly affect the development of the problem in both a child and a young mother.
Hormonal changes and fungus are not the only reasons for the appearance of an unpleasant problem. Sweating in children of different ages is one of the main predisposing factors to damage to the skin, to the appearance of pustules, to blockage of sweat and sebaceous glands.
Frequent washing and regular touching the face with your hands also leads to the appearance of acne on the face, including teenagers.
In addition to acne, newborns in a separate group allocate acne in children. It occurs at the age of one year or later up to 10 years and is difficult to treat, since the problem has genetic roots. Acne, which appears at the age of one, portends a worsening situation in the teenage period. Therapy in this case is not limited to the use of antiseptics, but requires special medications and thorough skin care. In order not to bring the process to the fight against acne in adolescence, it is easier to prevent its development in childhood.
- Wash twice a day. More often does not mean better.
- The use of special hygiene products for face care marked "for oily or problem skin." Ordinary soap is not a panacea for problem skin.
- The exception is any skin friction and self-removal of acne.
- Hands away from face.
- Sweat removal with disposable wipes.
- Refusal from a long exposure to the sun and the use of protective creams. The benefits of UV rays are a delusion!
- Refusal to use a solution of brilliant green greens before coming to the doctor. Zelenka makes it difficult to examine and diagnose!
Normally, episodic problems associated with blockage of the sebaceous glands in a child older than 1 year should not be. Pimples can appear on the background of insect bites or most often an allergic reflex.
It is also important to follow proper nutrition during feeding, so as not to provoke the appearance of allergic acne in infants. The list of non-recommended products includes:
- containing vitamin C - citrus fruits, berries;
- industrial sweets - confectionery;
- high in protein - dairy products, meat.
The main thing is to be able to distinguish between the normal physiological state of a month old baby and other skin diseases or allergies. To get rid of doubts and not harm the child, a visit to the doctor is required.
Allergy develops at any age, but mostly occurs in children and covers a long period - from breastfeeding to puberty. After this, some types of atopic allergies disappear. The main factor in the development of any allergy is a foreign substance that causes a response from the immune system. Conventionally, allergens are divided into:
- Exoallergens coming from outside.
- Endoallergens that exist inside the body.
There are many options and degrees of development of allergies in children. Most often, the reaction is expressed as a skin rash. Allergic rashes occur both on the face and other parts of the body and differ:
With the development of eczema on the face, acne in infants is characterized by the addition of a bacterial infection that requires antibacterial therapy.
With an allergic rash on children's skin, antibiotics are not recommended. In this case, antiseptics are used - solutions, sprays for treating the skin. Sometimes eliminating the source of the allergen is more effective than treatment.
- All that enters the baby's gastrointestinal tract is nutrition, fluid, and medication.
- Everything that comes into contact with the baby's skin is hygiene products and clothing.
- All that enters the airways with air is the substances present in the air.
Food allergens deserve special attention. Nutrition using artificial mixtures adversely affects the child's body if the child receives them from birth. Ideal for any baby is breastfeeding, which forms protective factors for vulnerable immunity. Breast milk is optimal for a set of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and trace elements. The mixture, even by recognized manufacturers, is not an analogue of the mother product and is a foreign substance. Today, even hypoallergenic mixtures can develop a reaction. When prescribing the mixture, it is advisable to conduct allergic testing in order to choose the most suitable product for the child.
There are many questions about the treatment of allergies. Parents and doctors scatter their eyes in the form of a variety of drugs and their use. Stop contacting the food allergy source effectively by flushing the stomach and making an enema. Treatment occurs through the gastrointestinal tract and is an excellent tool against allergies. Activated charcoal and a heavy drink are used to rinse the stomach.
Acne in infants with contact (diaper) dermatitis is diagnosed using skin allergy testing. Most parents, faced with an allergy to diapers, change them to a different brand or refuse to use them. An acceptable option for care during the treatment period is the use of cotton diapers.
Rare forms of acute allergic manifestations with rashes occur. Acute reactions include urticaria and Quincke's edema, arising from the fact that the child usually does not receive medications intravenously or intramuscularly. When injected, the percentage of acute allergic reactions increases accordingly. Such situations require compulsory treatment in a children's hospital.
For allergies, childhood acne is diagnosed as a constitution. Among other types of addition, lymphoid is most susceptible to anomalies of the body - diathesis. The provoking factor here is the food consumed by the child. Children of the lymphoid type have the characteristic features of appearance:
- asthenic physique;
- pale "transparent" skin;
- light iris - gray-blue color.
The term childhood conditions - diathesis - is common only in our country and is literally understood as a sweet allergy that provokes infant acne. From the Greek word "diathesis" means a tendency to something. When the doctor pronounces the word diathesis, he does not make a diagnosis, but states a predisposition, respectively, such conditions are not treated. The disease, which is usually perceived as diathesis, is subject to treatment. We are talking about allergic dermatitis - inflammation of the skin of an allergic nature. Very often, the reason for this condition is not that the child eats, but that he consumes more than he can digest.
In mint times, doctors knew that skin problems can be avoided without overloading the intestines with food. What has entered the body will sooner or later affect its activity, for example, the unsplit protein produced by antibodies will act as an allergy to the skin. Allergens appear on the surface of the integument or not, also depends on the degree of sweating. The more the baby sweats, the brighter the manifestation of dermatitis.
At the first signs of reactions and to find out the true reasons for the development of acne, you need to see a pediatrician or an allergist, and then adjust the diet, the composition of the complementary foods of the child or limit the effects of products that come into contact with vulnerable skin and enter the child's body. Self-medication and self-diagnosis are strictly contraindicated.
Important! Do not delay with treatment and consult a doctor as soon as possible!