Acne, known as acne vulgaris , is a dermatological disease that involves the sebaceous glands located at the base of the hair follicles. Acne is quite common in the puberty, when the sebaceous glands begin to actively produce sebum under the influence of male hormones produced by the adrenal glands in both men and women.
Acne is not dangerous, however, after it can still remain charm on the skin. Human skin has tiny pores that are connected to glands located under the skin. Such glands are connected to the pores through small channels. These glands produce the so-called sebum, which helps remove dead cells from the surface of the skin. The hair follicle is the place from which the hair grows, and acne appears when the hair follicles are blocked, which leads to the accumulation of sebum under the skin.
- Acne is a dermatological disease in which the sebaceous glands located at the base of the hair follicles participate;
- Most often, acne develops in the puberty;
- Acne is not dangerous, but can leave scars on the skin;
- Acne types include papules, pustules, nobules, cysts, with a white head, with a black head;
- About three quarters of people between the ages of 11 and 30 have acne at some point in their lives;
- According to experts, the primary cause of acne is an increase in androgen levels;
- Acne can develop in a person of any age and any race;
- Susceptibility to acne may be genetic;
- Acne treatment may depend on how seriously the disease has progressed and how constant it is;
- Acne is affected by the menstrual cycle, anxiety, stress, a hot and humid climate, oil-based cosmetics, greasy hair and acne squeezing.
So what is acne?
The term acne itself comes from the Greek word acme, which means “the highest point”, in 1835, when determining the disease, the original word was spelled incorrectly. Acne vulgaris manifests itself as acne tearing on the face, back, chest, shoulders and neck.
Everything is quite simple: skin cells, skin oil and hair can stick together, thus clogging the pores into which bacteria enter, which leads to the development of inflammation. Acne occurs at a time when this mass, clogging the pore, begins to decompose.
Scientists at the University of Washington Medical School have discovered that there are positive and negative strains of bacteria that determine the severity and frequency of acne. As researchers explained in a paper published in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology, not all bacteria associated with acne cause acne. in fact, one of the identified strains can help prevent acne on the skin.
What types of acne are there?
- With a white head: they remain under the skin and are small in size;
- With a black head: they are quite noticeable, have a black color and appear on the surface of the skin. It is worth remembering that their appearance is not caused by mud, so the usual skin cleansing will not help;
- Papules: they are visible on the surface of the skin, as a rule, have a pinkish tint and swelling;
- Pustules: quite visible on the skin, have a red base and pus in the upper part;
- Nobles: visible on the surface of the skin, have a fairly high density and large size, located deep in the skin and are painful;
- Cysts: visible on the surface of the skin, very painful and filled with pus, they can easily cause scars.
How common is acne?
According to dermatologists, approximately three quarters of people aged 11 to 30 years have acne at some point in their lives. Acne can develop in any person, regardless of gender, race or ethnicity. Most often, acne affects teenagers and young adults, despite the fact that some 50-year-olds also develop acne. According to Brown University, approximately 17 million Americans have acne in the United States. Despite the fact that acne affects both men and women, still young men suffer from acne longer, which may be associated with testosterone.
What are the causes of acne?
To date, the exact causes of acne have not been reliably established. According to experts, the primary cause of acne may be an increase in androgen levels. For example, in the teenage period. An increase in androgen levels leads to an increase in the sebaceous glands and an increase in the synthesis of sebum. Excessive amount of sebum can lead to rupture of the walls of skin cells and bacteria.
As some studies have shown, susceptibility to acne can also be genetic. Some drugs contain androgen and lithium, which can cause acne. Greasy cosmetics can also contribute to the development of acne in some people with hypersensitivity. Hormonal changes during pregnancy can cause both primary and secondary acne.