Acne (acne) is a disease of the sebaceous glands, leading to a skin-cosmetic defect. Acne is observed in all age groups – from infants to the elderly.
For adolescents, this problem is most important, since in young people during puberty there is a sharp increase in the concentration of sex hormones in the blood, which leads to an acceleration of the process of skin cell division and a decrease in the layers of keratinized scales. This dramatically increases the risk of bacteria penetrating into the sebaceous glands and hair follicles (follicles), which causes comedones (small tubercles of white or black color, which are an accumulation of sebum and keratin in the hair follicle), and then pimples, acne pustules, etc. When a teenager reaches puberty, the sebaceous glands begin to secrete more fat, which clogs the pores of the sebaceous ducts, and inflammation begins in them. It is known that to one degree or another, acne occurs in 100% of boys and 90% of girls in this age period.
Unfortunately, only 15% of people with acne seek medical help, although the psychological pressure of this disease is obvious – depression, irritability, shyness. What are the factors predisposing to the development of the disease? This is a genetic predisposition, changes in hormone levels, malnutrition, some diseases of the internal organs (in particular, diseases of the stomach, intestines, liver and gall bladder, endocrine disorders). In addition, some chemical compounds and medications (anabolics, contraceptives), oil-based cosmetics, skin irritation from constant friction, stay in a hot and humid climate, stress lead to rashes
. The so-called pink (or red) blackheads are also found, most often in women aged 30-50 years. Here, the risk factors are excessive exposure to the sun, overheating of the skin, excessive consumption of coffee or alcohol, hypothermia.
In the mechanism of acne development, 4 links are distinguished: enhancing the function of the sebaceous glands, blockage of the ducts of the sebaceous glands, the addition of infection and inflammation of the surrounding tissues, and a decrease in immunity.
The tactics of treatment are determined by the general condition of the patient, the clinical form of the disease (distinguish non-inflammatory and inflammatory forms of acne) and the severity of its course.
An individual program should include both local effects on the affected areas of the skin, and effects on the body as a whole. Even simple removal of fat from the skin is done using specially formulated drugs, and the use of soap and water can aggravate the disease. In inflammatory forms of acne, treatment consists of several stages. First of all, the struggle is aimed at destroying the microorganism that causes the infection, removing the inflammatory process and normalizing the functioning of the sebaceous glands. In order to remove sebaceous secretion from the ducts of the glands, various skin cleansings (mechanical, ultrasonic) are performed. Further, the use of special therapeutic masks and physiotherapy (cryomassage, D’Arsonval, magnetotherapy, microcurrent therapy) is effective. With a long and sluggish course of the disease, drugs
aimed at correcting the immune system are used. In conclusion, the treatment program takes measures aimed at eliminating cosmetic skin defects – post-traumatic pigment spots and scars. It should be borne in mind that the treatment of acne is a long process and can take several months, and the first results will be felt in about 1-2 months, subject to the necessary prescriptions of your attending dermatologist.
Acne is a disease, not a cosmetic problem. Therefore, do not despair if antiseptic cleansers do not help you, and do not postpone a visit to a specialist.