Neoplasms (neoplasia) is the medical name for tumors, i.e., excessive growth of any tissue in the body. Tumors are the result of uncontrolled reproduction of cells that have not yet reached maturity and therefore have lost their ability to fully perform their functions.
Tumors can occur in the internal organs and on the surface of the skin. Many, not knowing what neoplasms are on the skin, when any neoplasm appears on the skin, they mistakenly believe that it is cancer. In fact, this is not always the case.
According to the main classification, skin neoplasms are divided into benign and malignant. There are still precancerous formations – borderline between the two main types. Each type has its own subspecies and features, and to make an accurate diagnosis, you need the right diagnosis.
Benign neoplasms of the skin
In benign neoplasms, the ability to differentiate cells is usually not impaired. That is, they retain their original functions and are similar in structure to normal cells. Still, such cells grow slowly, they can put pressure on neighboring tissues, but they never penetrate into them.
Types of benign neoplasms of the skin:
- Atheroma is a tumor of the sebaceous gland, which is formed due to its blockage. Most often found where there are most sebaceous glands: on the neck, back, head, in the groin.
- A hemangioma is a vascular tumor that develops from blood vessel cells. It has a color from red to bluish-black.
- Papilloma and warts. Formation in the form of a small nodule or papilla. The reason is the human papillomavirus (HPV). Usually occur against the background of stress, reduced immunity, vegetative disorders. Often appear in the armpits, inguinal zone. Still papillomas are the most common neoplasms of the skin of the eyelids.
- Lymphangioma is a tumor from the walls of the lymphatic vessels, which is formed even inside the womb. Outwardly, these are small formations with a bumpy surface of a cyanotic or red-brown color.
- Lipoma – a tumor of the fatty layer (“wen”). It is located in the subcutaneous layer, most often in the upper back, shoulder girdle, outer thighs. The tumor is painless, soft and mobile.
- Fibroma is a connective tissue formation. It is more common in young and middle-aged women. They look like a neoplasm on the skin in the form of a ball protruding above its surface.
- Neurofibroma is a tumor of nerve sheath cells. Outwardly, it looks like a dense tubercle 0.1-2.3 cm in size.
A separate group of neoplasms includes nevi (moles). These are skin neoplasms of different colors: brown, red, black, purple, etc. In most cases, a nevus is a congenital malformation of the skin. But moles can appear throughout life, most often under the influence of sunlight. Nevi do not have a tendency to malignant degeneration, but in some cases this may occur due to damage or injury to the skin on the mole.
Despite the absence of direct danger, all benign types of neoplasms on the skin of the face, arms, legs and other parts of the body require constant monitoring. It is necessary to ensure that the tumors do not grow, do not increase in size, do not change color. Otherwise, you need to see a doctor.
Precancerous neoplasms ( precancroses )
Precancerous neoplasms are called neoplasms that, under the influence of congenital or current causes, have become prone to malignant degeneration. As a rule, these are chronic conditions that are observed in a person for a long time.
Thus, precancerous tumors are dangerous neoplasms on the skin that can lead to the development of oncological processes. These include:
- Senile keratoma is a keratosis in which dry crusts and scales appear on the skin of older people. When they peel off, slight bleeding may occur.
- Pigmentary xeroderma is a hereditary tumor that develops due to increased sensitivity of the skin to ultraviolet radiation. It is rare, it is pigmented spots that become warty growths.
- A cutaneous horn is a cone-shaped tumor that looks like a horn. Has a yellow or brown color. occurs in open areas of the body that are regularly subjected to friction or pressure. Typical for older people
- Bowen ‘s disease is an intraepidermal cancer. Without treatment, it can transform into invasive skin cancer. In its early stages, Bowen ‘s disease is a small reddish-brown spot 2–50 mm in size. has a flaky surface, raised jagged edges. After removing the scales, a weeping, but not bleeding surface remains.
Malignant neoplasms of the skin
The most dangerous types of neoplasms on the skin are malignant. They differ from benign ones in that they grow rapidly, penetrate into the surrounding tissues and metastasize to areas remote from the focus. The body does not control cell division in such tumors, and they themselves lose the ability to perform their original functions.
Signs of the degeneration of a benign tumor into one of the types of malignant neoplasms on the skin:
- rapid or sharp increase in tumor size;
- the appearance of ulcers, bleeding;
- spread to adjacent tissues;
- change in color or degree of saturation of pigmentation.
The main types of malignant skin tumors:
- Melanoma is the most common type. Most often arises from moles due to injury or excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation.
- Basalioma is a squamous cell carcinoma of the skin from atypical cells of the basal layer of the epidermis. Outwardly, it looks like a white nodule with a dry crust on the surface. As it progresses, it increases in width and turns into a deep ulcer.
- Kaposi’s sarcoma. Represents multiple tumors of purple, violet and lilac. They combine and turn into ulcers.
- Liposarcoma is a malignant tumor of adipose tissue that occurs against the background of lipomas and atheromas.
- Fibrosarcoma is a neoplasm of connective tissue, most often of the lower extremities. It has a dark blue-brown color and can protrude noticeably above the skin.
Experts recommend removing both benign and malignant neoplasms. This is the best method of treatment if there are no contraindications to it. In the case of benign neoplasms and precancerous conditions, with timely treatment, the prognosis is favorable.
Malignant tumors require more effort and the prognosis may not be as good, especially if metastasis is already present. Therefore, if you suspect malignant processes, it is important to consult a doctor as soon as possible.