Why does dyshidrotic eczema appear and what are its main symptoms

Eczema is the general name for a dermatological disease characterized by itching. The tendency to develop eczema is due to atopy , so it is often chronic in nature. 

Dyshidrotic eczema is a type of dermatitis that is fairly easy to identify due to its characteristic feature – a blistering rash. Rashes occur on the hands, especially in the area of ​​the fingers and palms, as well as on the feet, causing unbearable itching. I want to comb the bubbles until they bleed, but this cannot be done so that a bacterial infection does not join.

Causes of dyshidrotic eczema

Doctors do not know exactly the causes of this type of eczema, but several provoking factors are reliably known:

  • genetic predisposition (as in the case of psoriasis) – it is known that some mutations in the genes responsible for the structure of filaggrin , a structural protein of the stratum corneum of the skin, can reduce the barrier function of the dermis and provoke the occurrence of various types of eczema; 
  • atopy – the presence of a pathological reaction of the body to substances that do not pose a threat to a healthy person; in most patients with dyshidrotic eczema, an increase in immunoglobulin IgE is observed in the blood test ;
  • hypersensitivity to nickel and cobalt, while increased sweating can provoke a local increase in the concentration of metal salts, which causes eczema;
  • regular contact with a variety of chemicals, the development mechanism in this case is the same as in professional contact dermatitis. 

That is , internal and external factors lead to the occurrence of dyshidrotic eczema, the main of which are genetic predisposition, atopy and contact with chemicals.  

Hyperhidrosis can worsen the course of eczema, as well as climatic conditions, for example, heat, high humidity. For some patients , botulinum toxin injections may be recommended to reduce sweating if this factor is the cause of regularly exacerbated eczema or its severe course.

Typical symptoms of dyshidrotic eczema

The most important symptom of this type of eczema is blisters that itch. In addition, you can observe:

  • redness;
  • peeling and flaking of the epidermis;
  • cracks;
  • pain.

Symptoms are typical for all types of eczema, but it is with dyshidrotic that vesicles appear. If you examine the skin under a microscope, you can see the accumulation of water between skin cells, excessive keratinization of the upper layer of the epidermis, thickening of individual cell layers. The person may feel tension, dryness, and even pain. The skin is inflamed and cannot fully fulfill the barrier function.

event_note July 17, 2021

account_box Dr. Peter B Milburn

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